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Style Sheet for Our Contributors

Article ID 5515


Prospective authors are invited to submit a brief statement of the proposed article to the editors in advance of submission at


When you submit your article, send it as a Word file (not a PDF or HTML file) to


If the file is too large for email attachment, please send it via WeTransfer, or DropBox to Please do not send any documents via Microsoft One Drive.


The following guidelines are meant to assist authors and translators in preparing texts for posting.


Please pay particular attention to item #15, Text Preparation.


  1. Romanization. We use the modified Hepburn romanization for Japanese. Please use Pinyin for Chinese and McCune-Reischauer Romanization for Korean. You may also include Chinese characters or Japanese characters in addition to Romanization for key terms.

  2. East Asian Names. We give East Asian names with surname first according to East Asian practice in China, Japan and Korea with the exception of authors and translators who prefer to render their names with surname last or who are well known internationally with surname first.

  3. Citation Style. Please use Harvard style in-text citations (Smith 2006, 45) with list of references including author, title, publisher, date and place of publication at the bottom of each page. In general, keep notes to a minimum. If you include notes, please provide automatic numbered notes in the text and the numbered notes at the bottom of each page.

  4. Tables, Graphs, Charts. Please insert these in the text, numbering them and providing captions. If you are unable to do so, indicate their location by title in the text and submit them separately as jpg files.

  5. Photographs, Graphics and Moving Images. Graphics and moving graphics, such as YouTube videos, enhance the impact of and interest in your article. We strongly encourage authors to provide relevant photographs and art, including their own high-quality photographs or graphics obtained during research, but also items located in books, museums, or on the web. Please insert photos and image captions in the text together with high quality photographs, maps and other graphics or moving and/or sound images to accompany them. We ask that you convert any graphics to an electronic format and insert them in the text, with the caption (if any) below each photograph. We can adjust the size and placement of the graphic file. We cannot, however, use low quality photos. If you are unable to insert the photos or graphics in the text, please include numbered captions for every image, place numbered captions in the text and send the images separately. Please see item #15 Text Preparations for more guidance.

  6. Abstract and Keywords. Please include a 25-100 word, one-paragraph abstract followed by a brief list of keywords. Please see item #15 Text Preparation for their location following the title and author bio at the top of the article.

  7. Author and Translator Identification. Please provide one-paragraph biographies right after the article title. We acknowledge authors and translators, including information about, and a link to, a book, article or translation published elsewhere, and a note about your work or location. We will also link to your website for fuller information. We ask authors and translators to provide an email address that will be posted with your bio. Please see the item #15 Text Preparations for where to place them in the document.

  8. Length. The majority of articles we publish are in the range of 1,500 to 3,000 words, with few notes. But we also publish journal length articles in the range of 6,000-8,000 words and occasionally up to 10,000 words, some of which include extensive in-text citations and endnotes. We believe that brevity is particularly appropriate for electronic media.

  9. Copyright remains with the author. We regularly accept requests to reprint, requesting acknowledgment of the original, subject to the author’s permission. That is, the final word is the author’s.

  10. American English/British English (others). We will adhere to author's preference consistently applied.

  11. Translation. Many of our most successful translations into English have emerged from active collaborations involving a native non-English speaker with a good sense of written English, and a native English speaker with a good command of written English. If you are in a position to make such collaborative arrangements, please do so. If there are any terms or phrases that are difficult or untranslatable, please indicate in bold or parentheses and we will work with you on these. Please note that we do not have the capacity to check and edit translations systematically. We rely on translators to provide finished and polished texts.

  12. Proofreading. You are responsible for careful proofreading prior to submission. Please understand we cannot correct typos and multiple errors on uploaded articles except in extenuating circumstances. We appreciate your assistance.

  13. Links to APJ articles. If any articles in the journal archive are particularly relevant to your contribution, or link tightly with it, we appreciate having that connection marked in notes or in a hyperlinked list of relevant article titles at the end of the essay.

  14. Text Editing. We value clarity of language and thought. We encourage authors and translators, particularly of longer texts, to edit them to preserve the core of the analysis and to eliminate portions that may be opaque to our readership, repetitive, or tangential to the central issues. Please submit a text that has been carefully reviewed for the clarity and fluency of writing, seeking editorial assistance from colleagues, teachers or professional editors prior to submission as necessary. It is particularly important that non-native English writers seek expert editorial assistance prior to submission.

  15. Text Preparation.

    1. Texts that are submitted must be fully finalized and proofread. Incomplete manuscripts with errors and issues will cause delay in publication. Please see item #12 Proofreading. 

    2. Requests for changes and corrections are not welcome after the upload. Please do not assume that the articles are not yet uploaded while waiting for the article to be posted and send us new revised manuscripts in the meantime. Often articles are already uploaded but kept inactive.

    3. Articles that are fully revised and finalized must arrive in the hands of the website upload team at least three days prior to the new issue publication date, the 1st and 15th of each month. A week is preferred. For example, all the articles for the 12/1 issue should be fully finalized and be sent to us at least by November 28. For the 12/15 issue, the deadline is 12/12. For the 1/1 issue, 12/29.

    4. If this is a special issue, the finalized and proofread article with the finalized Table of Contents should arrive at least 4 week before to the upload team. More is preferable. Depending on the size of the package, the publication schedule may be adjusted from one to two issues. The package of articles must include a finalized Table of Contents.

    5. All articles must contain: 1. abstract 2. keywords and 3. author bio (please place it right after the title at the top of the document for ease of the upload, not below) and 4. At least one image we can use for a homepage thumbnail. 

    6. Please do not add any footnote to the article title at the top of the document. We cannot add a footnote to a title. Please add the first footnote to abstract and below in the text.

    7. Please do not leave just a link in footnote. Please give proper citations for all footnotes.

    8. If authors have Twitter accounts, please provide their usernames so we can mention them on social media. We ask authors to mention us and retweet our tweets.

    9. Please provide single-spaced text.

    10. Please do not indent new paragraphs unless they are quotes. Please do not use tab, or use several spaces at the beginning of each paragraph.

    11. Please enter information in your submission in the following order: 1. title, 2. author name and biography, 3. one-paragraph abstract, followed by keywords in the first page, and 4. the text, footnotes and bibliographic references from page 2.

    12. Please left justify text; please do not full justify.

    13. Please capitalize the first letter of each word in the title and in section headings, with the usual exceptions for pronouns.

    14. Titles of books and journals should be in italics; please do not underline.

    15. Sections: 

      1. Sections should have one blank space above. Please do not add any space below section titles.

      2. Main subheads should be in bold; second-level subheads should be in bold plus italics. Do not use underline or all-caps for subheads.

    16. Links:

      1. Please hyperlink all relevant weblinks in appropriate and relevant places in the text; please do not leave any naked URLs anywhere in the text including footnotes. For example, please do not leave this URL in the text: Instead hyperlink the following text: The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus.

      2. When adding hyperlinks, please use clean URLs without long, complicated, and unnecessary pieces used for the purpose of web redirects. For example, this kind of URL ( should be trimmed down to this ( before being added as a hyperlink in your text.

    17. Images and media:

      1. As a general rule, please insert high-resolution images to the article document. We recommend at least 300dpi. If an image looks pixelated, the resolution is too low. Please send separate files only in special cases.

      2. In case the author wishes to include an image with large dimensions (i.e, an image that would extend "below the fold") or any special images (such as those with annotations), please send high-quality jpeg files as separate files attached to a single email, or send them using WeTransfer to If separate image files are sent, it is particularly important that authors clearly mark where the images belong in the article document (Figure 1: ....) and name files in order of where they should be placed (ex: figure1.jpg, figure2.jpg).

      3. Please be clear about exactly what media and images you wish to use and where in the text you want them to appear by inserting clear language markers such as “Place Figure 1 here” and “Caption for figure 1,” to go along with them.

      4. If authors leave a URL linking to a video in the text, we insert a video to the article page, rather than keeping the bare URL to the video. If you prefer a screenshot from the video, please clearly indicate, and also add proper captions with a hyperlink to the video.

      5. Please add captions for all images and media, and use bold for the captions.




Updated June 25, 2022.