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Style Sheet for Our Contributors

Article ID 5515


Prospective authors are invited to submit a brief statement of the proposed article to the editors in advance of submission at


When you submit your article, send it as a Word file (not a PDF or HTML file) to


If the file is lengthy or image heavy, send it via We Transfer, a free service: .


You may also send it via Drop Box. Do not send it via Microsoft One Drive.


The following guidelines are meant to assist authors and translators in preparing texts for posting.


  1. Romanization. We use the modified Hepburn romanization for Japanese. Please use Pinyin for Chinese and McCune-Reischauer Romanization for Korean. You may also include Chinese characters or Japanese characters in addition to Romanization for key terms.

  2. East Asian Names. We give East Asian names with surname first according to East Asian practice with the exception of authors and translators who prefer to render their names with surname last or who are well known by the reverse order.

  3. Citation Style. Please use Harvard style in-text citations (Smith 2006, 45) with list of references including author, title, publisher, date and place of publication at the bottom of each page. In general, keep notes to a minimum. If you include notes, please provide automatic numbered notes in the text and the numbered notes at the bottom of each page.

  4. Tables, Graphs, Charts. We can handle tables, graphs and charts. Please insert these in the text with captions. If you are unable to do so, submit them separately as jpg files.

  5. Photographs, Graphics and Moving Images. Graphics and moving graphics, such as YouTube videos, enhance the impact of and interest in your article. We strongly encourage authors to provide relevant photographs and art, including their own high-quality photographs or graphics obtained during research, but also items located in books, museums, or on the web. Please insert photos and image captions in the text together with high quality photographs, maps and other graphics or moving and/or sound images to accompany them. We ask that you convert any graphics to an electronic format and insert them in the text, with the caption (if any) below each photograph. We can adjust the size and placement of the graphic file. We cannot, however, use low quality photos. If you are unable to insert the photos or graphics in the text, please include numbered captions for every image, place numbered captions in the text and send the images separately.

  6. Abstract and Keywords. Please include a 25-100 word abstract at the head of your article followed by a brief list of keywords.

  7. Length. The majority of articles we publish are in the range of 1,500 to 3,000 words, with few notes. But we also publish journal length articles in the range of 6,000-8,000 words and occasionally up to 10,000 words, some of which include extensive in-text citations and endnotes. We believe that brevity is particularly appropriate for electronic media.

  8. Author and Translator Identification. Please provide one-paragraph biographies at the end of your article or translation. We acknowledge authors and translators, including information about, and a link to, a book, article or translation published elsewhere, and a note about your work or location. We will also link to your website which may provide fuller information. We ask authors and translators to provide an email address that will be posted with your bio.

  9. Publication. Many of the articles that we publish are republished on sites such as: History News Network, Foreign Policy in Focus, Asia Times, Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability, Truthout, Center for Research on Globalization, Yale Global Online, Worldpress, among others.

  10. Copyright remains with the author. We regularly accept requests to reprint, requesting acknowledgment of the original, subject to the author’s permission. That is, the final word is the author’s.

  11. American English/British English (others). We will adhere to author's preference consistently applied.

  12. Translation. Many of our most successful translations into English have emerged from active collaborations involving a native non-English speaker with a good sense of written English and willingness to frankly draw attention to translation errors, and a native English speaker with a good command of written English. In all cases this has made it possible to elevate the level of translation. If you are in a position to make such collaborative arrangements, please do so. If there are any terms or phrases that are difficult or untranslatable, please indicate in bold or parentheses and we will work with you on these. Please note that we do not have the capacity to check and edit translations systematically. We rely on translators to provide finished and polished texts.

  13. Proofreading. You are responsible for careful proofreading prior to submission. After your article is posted, we ask that you check the text carefully and inform us, in a single note, if there are any corrections. We appreciate your assistance.We appreciate your assistance.

  14. Links to APJ articles. If any articles in the journal archive are particularly relevant to your contribution, or link tightly with it, we appreciate having that connection marked in notes or at the end of the essay.

  15. Text Editing. We value clarity of language and thought. We encourage authors and translators, particularly of longer texts, to edit them to preserve the core of the analysis and to eliminate portions that may be opaque to our readership, repetitive, or tangential to the central issues. Please submit a text that has been carefully reviewed for the clarity and fluency of writing, seeking editorial assistance from colleagues, teachers or professional editors prior to submission as necessary. It is particularly important that non-native English writers seek expert editorial assistance prior to submission.

  16. Text Preparation. Please provide single space text with a double space between paragraphs.

    1. Use one space after a period, not two.

    2. Left justify text (not full justify).

    3. Subheads should be on a separate line, with a blank line above and below. Main subheads should be bold; second-level subheads should be in italics, with only the first letter of the line capitalized. Do not use underline or all-caps for subheads.

    4. Names of books, etc., should be in italics, not underlined.

    5. If possible, make double quote marks the single character ("like this") and not two separate apostrophes (which may look similar: ''like this'').

    6. Please do not leave any naked URLs anywhere in the text including footnotes. Please hyperlink all relevant weblinks to texts in appropriate and relevant places. When doing so, please use clean URLs without long, complicated, and unnecessary pieces used for the purpose of web redirects. For example, this URL ( should be trimmed down to this ( and hyperlinked to texts for publications on our website.

    7. Either use a consistent tab to indent paragraphs or even better, please don't indent paragraphs at all. Please do not use 3 or 5 or 7 spaces.




Updated August 5, 2021.